Vapor Pressure Differences

Both of these methods do not rely on membranes, so filtration requirements are not as important as they are in the PRO & RED schemes.

Open Cycle

Similar to the open cycle in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The disadvantage of this cycle is the cumbersome problem of a large diameter turbine (75 meters +) operating at below atmospheric pressure to extract the power between the water with less salinity & the water with greater salinity.

Absorption Refrigeration (Closed Cycle)

For the purpose of dehumidifying air, in a water-spray absorption refrigeration system, water vapor is dissolved into a deliquescent salt water mixture using osmotic power as an intermediary. The primary power source originates from a thermal difference, as part of a thermodynamic heat engine cycle.